Tuesday, 12 August 2014


From Wikipedia, the free reference book

This article is about the U.s. state of Tennessee. For the stream, see Tennessee River. For different utilization, see Tennessee (disambiguation).

State of Tennessee

Banner of Tennessee state seal of Tennessee

Flag seal

Nickname(s): The Volunteer State

Motto(s): Agriculture and Commerce

Guide of the United States with Tennessee highlighted

Official language english

Demonym tennessean

Capital nashville

Biggest city memphis

Biggest metro nashville Metropolitan Area

Area ranked 36th

- Total 42,143 sq mi

(109,247 km2)

- Width 120 miles (195 km)

- Length 440 miles (710 km)

- % water 2.2

- Latitude 34° 59′ N to 36° 41′ N

- Longitude 81° 39′ W to 90° 19′ W

Population ranked seventeenth

- Total 6,495,978 (2013 est)[1]

- Density 153.9/sq mi  (60.0/km2)

Positioned 21st


- Highest point clingmans Dome[2][3]

6,643 ft (2025 m)

- Mean 900 ft  (270 m)

- Lowest point mississippi River at Mississippi border[2][3]

178 ft (54 m)

Before statehood southwest Territory

Admission to Union june 1, 1796 (sixteenth)

Governor bill Haslam (R)

Lieutenant Governor ron Ramsey (R)

Legislature general Assembly

- Upper house senate

- Lower house house of Representatives

U.s. Senators lamar Alexander (R)

Bounce Corker (R)

U.s. House delegation 7 Republicans, 2 Democrats (rundown)

Time zones

- East Tennessee eastern: UTC -5/ -4

- Middle and West central: UTC -6/ -5

Abbreviations tn, Tenn. US-TN

Website www.tennessee.gov

[show]tennessee State images

Tennessee (Listeni/tɛnɨˈsiː/) (Cherokee: ᏔᎾᏏ, Tanasi) is a U.s. state spotted in the Southeastern United States. Tennessee is the 36th most broad and the seventeenth most crowded of the 50 United States. Tennessee is flanked by Kentucky and Virginia to the north, North Carolina to the east, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi to the south, and Arkansas and Missouri to the west. The Appalachian Mountains rule the eastern piece of the state, and the Mississippi River structures the state's western outskirt. Tennessee's capital and second biggest city is Nashville, which has a populace of 624,496. Memphis is the state's biggest city, with a populace of 655,155.[4]

The state of Tennessee is established in the Watauga Association, a 1772 boondocks settlement by and large viewed as the first protected government west of the Appalachians.[5] What is currently Tennessee was at first piece of North Carolina, and later piece of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the sixteenth state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the episode of the U.s. Common War in 1861 and the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war.[6]

Tennessee outfitted a larger number of warriors for the Confederate Army than another state, and a greater number of fighters for the Union Army than another Southern state.[6] Beginning amid Reconstruction, it hosted focused gathering governmental issues, however a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s brought about entry of disfranchisement laws in 1889 that prohibited most blacks and numerous poor whites from voting, strongly decreasing rivalry in governmental issues in the state until section of social liberties enactment in the mid-twentieth century.[7] In the twentieth century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more differentiated economy, helped by enormous elected financing in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge. This city was created to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enhancement offices, serving to construct the world's first nuclear shell.

Tennessee has assumed a basic part in the improvement of numerous manifestations of American prevalent music, including shake and move, soul, nation, and rockabilly. Beale Street in Memphis is considered by numerous to be the origin of soul, with performers, for example, W.c. Helpful performing in its clubs as ahead of schedule as 1909.[8] Memphis is likewise home to Sun Records, where performers, for example, Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, Carl Perkins, Jerry Lee Lewis, Roy Orbison, and Charlie Rich started their recording vocations, and where shake and move came to fruition in the 1950s.[9] The 1927 Victor recording sessions in Bristol by and large check the start of the blue grass music classification and the ascent of the Grand Ole Opry in the 1930s helped make Nashville the inside of the blue grass music recording industry.[10][11] Three block and-mortar galleries perceive Tennessee's part in supporting different types of mainstream music: the Memphis Rock N' Soul Museum, the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum in Nashville, and the International Rock-A-Billy Museum in Jackson. In addition, the Rockabilly Hall of Fame, an online webpage perceiving the advancement of rockabilly in which Tennessee assumed an essential part, is situated in Nashville.

Tennessee's significant commercial enterprises incorporate horticulture, assembling, and tourism. Poultry, soybeans, and cows are the state's essential horticultural products,[12] and significant assembling fares incorporate chemicals, transportation supplies, and electrical equipment.[13] The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the country's most gone by national park, is headquartered in the eastern piece of the state, and an area of the Appalachian Trail harshly takes after the Tennessee-North Carolina border.[14] Other real vacation destinations incorporate the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; Dollywood in Pigeon Forge; the Parthenon, the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, and Ryman Auditorium in Nashville; the Jack Daniel's Distillery in Lynchburg; and Elvis Presley's Graceland habitation and tomb, the Memphis Zoo, and the National Civil Rights Museum in Memphis.

Substance  [hide]

1 Name starting point

1.1 Nickname

2 Geography

2.1 East Tennessee

2.2 Middle Tennessee

2.3 West Tennessee

2.4 Public terrains

2.5 Climate

3 Important urban areas and towns

4 History

4.1 Early history

4.2 Statehood (1796)

4.3 Civil War and Reconstruction

4.4 twentieth century

4.5 21st century

5 Demograph

Name origin

The soonest variation of the name that turned into Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish pioneer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian town named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while voyaging inland from South Carolina. In the early eighteenth century, British merchants experienced a Cherokee town named Tanasi (or "Tanase") in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee. The town was found on a waterway of the same name (now known as the Little Tennessee River), and shows up on maps as right on time as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one experienced by Juan Pardo, albeit late research proposes that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was placed at the conjunction of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, close current Newport.[15]

The importance and root of the statement are unverifiable. A few records recommend it is a Cherokee alteration of a prior Yuchi word. It has been said to signify "gathering spot", "slowing down", or "stream of the incredible bend".[16][17] According to James Mooney, the name "can not be dissected" and its importance is lost.[18]

The present day spelling, Tennessee, is credited to James Glen, the legislative leader of South Carolina, who utilized this spelling within his authority correspondence amid the 1750s. The spelling was promoted by the distribution of Henry Timberlake's "Draft of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina made "Tennessee County", the third region to be built in what is currently Middle Tennessee. (Tennessee County was the antecedent to current-day Montgomery County and Robertson County). At the point when a sacred gathering met in 1796 to arrange another state out of the Southwest Territory, it received "Tennessee" as the name of the state.


Tennessee is known as the "Volunteer State," a handle earned amid the War of 1812 as a result of the unmistakable pretended by volunteer fighters from Tennessee, particularly amid the Battle of New Orleans.[19]


See additionally: List of districts in Tennessee and Geology of Tennessee

Guide of Tennessee

Tennessee outskirts eight different states: Kentucky and Virginia to the north; North Carolina to the east; Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi on the south; Arkansas and Missouri on the Mississippi River to the west. Tennessee ties Missouri as the state bordering the most different states. The state is trisected by the Tennessee River.

The most astounding point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (2,025 m).[20] Clingmans Dome, which lies on Tennessee's eastern outskirt, is the most noteworthy point on the Appalachian Trail, and is the third most elevated crest in the United States east of the Mississippi River. The state line somewhere around Tennessee and North Carolina crosses the summit. The state's least point is the Mississippi River at the Mississippi state line (the most reduced point in Memphis, adjacent, is at 195 ft (59 m)). The land middle of the state is spotted in Murfreesboro.

The state of Tennessee is geologically, socially, monetarily, and lawfully isolated into three Grand Divisions: East Tennessee, Middle Tennessee, and West Tennessee. The state constitution permits close to two judges of the five-part Tennessee Supreme Court to be from one Grand Division and a comparable principle applies to specific commissions and sheets.

Tennessee gimmicks six important physiographic districts: the Blue Ridge, the Appalachian Ridge and Valley Region, the Cumberland Plateau, the Highland Rim, the Nashville Basin, and the Gulf Coastal Plain. Tennessee is home to the most collapses the United States, with in excess of 9,600 reported caverns to date.[21]

East Tennessee[edit]

Primary article: East Tennessee

Guide of Tennessee highlighting East Tennessee

The Blue Ridge region lies on the eastern edge of Tennessee, bordering North Carolina. This district of Tennessee is portrayed by the high mountains and rough territory of the western Blue Ridge Mountains, which are subdivided into a few subranges, in particular the Great Smoky Mountains, the Bald Mountains, the Unicoi Mountains, the Unaka Mountains and Roan Highlands, and the Iron Mountains.

The normal rise of the Blue Ridge zone is 5,000 feet (1,500 m) above ocean level. Clingmans Dome, the state's most elevated point, is found in this locale. The Blue Ridge region was never more than scantily populated, and today much of it is ensured by the Cherokee National Forest, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and a few government wild territories and state parks.

Extending west from the Blue Ridge for more or less 55 miles (89 km) is the Ridge and Valley area, in which various tributaries join to structure the Tennessee River in the Tennessee Valley. This range of Tennessee is secured by fruitful valleys differentiated by lush edges, for example, Bays Mountain and Clinch Mountain. The western area of the Tennessee valley, where the dejections get to be more extensive and the edges get to be lower, is known as the Great Valley. In this valley are various towns and two of the area's three urban ranges, Knoxville, the third biggest city in the state, and Chattanooga, the fourth biggest city in the state.

The Cumberland Plateau ascents to the west of the Tennessee Valley; this range is secured with level topped mountains differentiated by sharp valleys. The height of the Cumberland Plateau ranges from 1,500 to in excess of 2,000 feet (450 to in excess of 600 m) above ocean level.

Center Tennessee[edit]

Primary article: Middle Tennessee

Guide of Tennessee highlighting Middle Tennessee

West of the Cumberland Plateau is the Highland Rim, a hoisted plain that encompasses the Nashville Basin. The northern segment of the Highland Rim, known for its high tobacco generation, is here and there called the Pennyroyal Plateau; it is placed fundamentally in Southwestern Kentucky. The Nashville Basin is portrayed by rich, ripe homestead nation and incredible assorted qualities of characteristic natural life.

Center Tennessee was a typical goal of pilgrims intersection the Appalachians from Virginia in the late eighteenth century and earl


Fundamental article: History of Tennessee

Early history[edit]

Mississippian-period shell gorget, Castalian Springs, Sumner County

Reproduction of Fort Loudon, the first British settlement in Tennessee

The range now known as Tennessee was initially occupied by Paleo-Indians about 12,000 years ago.[30] The names of the social gatherings that possessed the region between first settlement and the time of European contact are obscure, yet a few different social stages have been named by archeologists, including Archaic (8000–1000 BC), Woodland (1000 Bc–1000 AD), and Mississippian (1000–1600 AD), whose chiefdoms were the social forerunners of the Muscogee individuals who possessed the Tennessee River Valley preceding Cherokee movement into the stream's headwaters.

The initially recorded European journeys into what is currently called Tennessee were three campaigns headed by Spanish voyagers, specifically Hernando de Soto in 1540, Tristan de Luna in 1559, and Juan Pardo in 1567. Pardo recorded the name "Tanasqui" from a nearby Indian town, which developed to the state's present name. Around then, Tennessee was possessed by tribes of Muscogee and Yuchi individuals. Potentially due to European sicknesses crushing the Indian tribes, which would have left a populace vacuum, furthermore from extending European settlement in the north, the Cherokee moved south from the zone now called Virginia. As European pilgrims spread into the range, the Indian populaces were coercively relocated to the south and west, including all Muscogee and Yuchi people groups, the Chickasaw, and Choctaw.

The principal British settlement in what is presently Tennessee was implicit 1756 by pilgrims from the state of South Carolina at Fort Loudoun, close present-day Vonore. Fortress Loudoun turned into the westernmost British station to that date. The fortress was outlined by John William Gerard de Brahm and developed by powers under British Captain Raymond Demeré. After its consummation, Captain Raymond Demeré surrendered summon on August 14, 1757 to his sibling, Captain Paul Demeré. Dangers emitted between the British and the neighboring Overhill Cherokees, and an attack of Fort Loudoun finished with its surrender on August 7, 1760. The accompanying morning, Captain Paul Demeré and various his men were murdered in a waylay adjacent, and the a large portion of whatever remains of the army was taken prisoner.[31]

In the 1760s, long seekers from Virginia investigated much of East and Middle Tennessee, and the first changeless European pioneers started arriving late in the decade. The larger part of eighteenth century pilgrims were English or of principally English drop however almost 20% of them were additionally Scotch-Irish.[32] These pioneers framed the Watauga Association, a group based on terrains rented from the Cherokee people groups.

Amid the American Revolutionary War, Fort Watauga at Sycamore Shoals (in present-day Elizabethton) was assaulted (1776) by Dragging Canoe and his warring faction of Cherokee who were adjusted to the British Loyalists. These maverick Cherokee were alluded to by pioneers as the Chickamauga. They contradicted North Carolina's addition of the Washington District and the simultaneous settling of the Transylvania Colony further north and west. The lives of numerous pilgrims were saved from the beginning warrior assaults through the warnings of Dragging Canoe's cousin, Nancy Ward. The wilderness fortification on the banks of the Watauga River later served as a 1780 organizing region for the Overmountain Men in planning to trek over the Appalachian Mountains, to captivate, and to later thrashing the British Army at the Battle of Kings Mountain in South Carolina.

Three districts of the Washington District (now a piece of Tennessee) severed from North Carolina in 1784 and shaped the State of Franklin. Endeavors to acquire admission to the Union fizzled, and the districts (now numbering eight) had re-joined North Carolina by 1789. North Carolina ceded the zone to the national government in 1790, after which it was sorted out into the Southwest Territory. In an exertion to urge pioneers to move west into the new region, in 1787 the mother state of North Carolina requested a street to be sliced to take pilgrims into the Cumberland Settlements—from the south end of Clinch Mountain (in East Tennessee) to French Lick (Nashville). The Trace was known as the "North Carolina Road" or "Avery's Trace," and now and then "The Wilderness Road (in spite of the fact that it ought not be confounded with Daniel Boone's "Wild Road" through the Cumberland Gap).

Statehood (1796)[edit]

Tennessee was admitted to the Union on June 1, 1796 as the sixteenth state. It was the first state made from region under the purview of the United States national government. Separated from the previous Thirteen Colonies just Vermont and Kentucky originate before Tennessee's statehood, and not, one or the other was ever a government territory.[33] The state limits, as per the Constitution of the State of Tennessee, Article I, Section 31, expressed that the starting point for recognizing the limit was the great tallness of the Stone Mountain, at the spot where the line of Virginia converges it, and fundamentally ran the amazing statures of mountain chains through the Appalachian Mountains dividing North Carolina from Tennessee past the Indian towns of Cowee and Old Chota, thereupon along the primary edge of the said mountain (Unicoi Mountain) to the southern limit of the state; all the domain, terrains and waters lying west of said line are incorporated in the limits and breaking points of the recently framed state of Tennessee. Some piece of the procurement likewise expressed that the cutoff points and locale of the state would incorporate future area obtaining, referencing conceivable area exchange with different states, or the securing of domain from west of the Mississippi River.

Amid the organization of U.s. President Martin Van Buren, almost 17,000 Cherokees—alongside pretty nearly 2,000 dark slaves claimed by Cherokees—were removed from their homes somewhere arou


The United States Census Bureau appraises that the number of inhabitants in Tennessee was 6,495,978 on July 1, 2013, a 2.4% increment since the 2010 United States Census.[1] The middle of populace of Tennessee is spotted in Rutherford County, in the city of Murfreesboro.[43]

As per the U.s. Statistics Bureau, starting 2013, Tennessee had an expected populace of 6,495,978, which is a build of 39,735, from the former year and an expand of 149,873, or 2.36%, since the year 2010. This incorporates a regular expand since the last registration of 142,266 individuals (that is 493,881 births less 351,615 passings), and a build from net relocation of 219,551 individuals into the state. Migration from outside the United States brought about a net build of 59,385 individuals, and movement inside the nation delivered a net expand of 160,166 individuals. 20% of Tennesseans were conceived outside the South, contrasted with a figure of 13.5% in 1990.[44]

Lately, Tennessee has gotten an increase of individuals moving from a few northern states, California, and Florida, for the ease of living, and the blasting medicinal services and car commercial enterprises. Metropolitan Nashville is one of the quickest developing ranges in the nation due to a limited extent to these variables.

As of the 2010 registration, the racial arrangement of Tennessee's populace was as takes after:

[hide]racial composition 1990[45] 2000[46] 2010[47]

White 83.0% 80.2% 77.6%

Black 16.0% 16.4% 16.7%

Asian 0.7% 1.0% 1.4%

Native 0.2% 0.3% 0.3%

Local Hawaiian and

other Pacific Islander - - 0.1%

Other race 0.2% 1.0% 2.2%

Two or more races - 1.1% 1.7%

In that year 4.6% of the aggregate populace was of Hispanic or Latino cause (they may be of any race).[48]

Tennessee Population Density Map.

In 2000, the five most basic self-reported ethnic gatherings in the state were: American (17.3%), African American (13.0%), Irish (9.3%), English (9.1%), and German (8.3%).[49] Most Tennesseans who self-recognize as having American heritage are of English and Scotch-Irish lineage. An expected 21–24% of Tennesseans are of prevalently English ancestry.[50][51] In the 1980 statistics 1,435,147 Tennesseans guaranteed "English" or "for the most part English" set of relatives out of a state populace of 3,221,354 making them 45% of the state at the time.[52]

Starting 2011, 36.3% of Tennessee's populace more youthful than age 1 were minorities.[53]

6.6% of Tennessee's populace were accounted for as under 5 years old, 24.6% under 18, and 12.4% were 65 or more established. Females made up roughly 51.3% of the population.[citation needed]

On June 19, 2010, the Tennessee Commission of Indian Affairs allowed state distinguishment to six Indian tribes which was later revoked by the state's Attorney General on the grounds that the activity by the commission was unlawful. The tribes were as takes after:

The Cherokee Wolf Clan in western Tennessee, with parts in Carroll County, Benton, Decatur, Henderson, Henry, Weakley, Gibson and Madison districts.

The Chikamaka Band built verifiably with respect to the South Cumberland Plateau, said to have parts in Franklin, Grundy, Marion, Sequatchie, Warren and Coffee areas.

Focal Band of Cherokee, otherwise called the Cherokee of Lawrence County, Tennessee.

United Eastern Lenapee Nation of Winfield, Tennessee.

The Tanasi Council, said to have parts in Shelby, Dyer, Gibson, Humphreys and Perry districts; and

Leftover Yuchi Nation, with parts in Sullivan, Carter, Greene, Hawkins, Unicoi, Johnson and Washington counties.[54]


The religious affiliations of the populace of Tennessee are:[55]

Christian: 82%

Protestants: 70%

Baptist: 39%

Methodist: 10%

Presbyterian: 3%

Church of God: 2%

Lutheran: 2%

Pentecostal: 2%

Church of Christ: 6%

Roman Catholic: 6%

Other Christian (incorporates unspecified "Christian" and "Protestant"): 12%

Islam: 1%[56]

Different religions: 2%

Non-religious: 9%

The biggest sections by number of followers in 2010 were the Southern Baptist Convention with 1,483,356; the United Methodist Church with 375,693; the Roman Catholic Church with 222,343; and the Churches of Christ with 214,118.[57]

As of January 1, 2009, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) reported 43,179 parts, 10 stakes, 92 Congregations (68 wards and 24 extensions), two missions, and two sanctuaries in Tennessee.[58]

Tennessee is home to a few Protestant sections, for example, the National Baptist Convention (headquartered in Nashville); the Church of God in Christ and the Cumberland Presbyterian Church (both headquartered in Memphis); the Church of God and The Church of God of Prophecy (both headquartered in Cleveland). The Free Will Baptist category is headquartered in Antioch; its primary Bible school is in Nashville. The Southern Baptist Convention keeps up its general central command in Nashville. Distributed places of a few divisions are placed in Nashvill


See additionally: List of settlements in Tennessee by for every capita wage

As per the U.s. Authority of Economic Analysis, in 2011 Tennessee's true horrible state item was $233.997 billion. In 2003, the for every capita particular pay was $28,641, 36th in the country, and 91% of the national for every capita individual salary of $31,472. In 2004, the average family unit salary was $38,550, 41st in the country, and 87% of the national average of $44,472.

For 2012, the state held an advantage surplus of $533 million, one of just eight states in the country to report a surplus.[59]

Significant yields for the state incorporate materials, cotton, dairy cattle, and electrical force. Tennessee has in excess of 82,000 ranches, about 59 percent of which suit meat cattle.[60] Although cotton was an early product in Tennessee, vast scale development of the fiber did not start until the 1820s with the opening of the area between the Tennessee and Mississippi Rivers. The upper wedge of the Mississippi Delta stretches out into southwestern Tennessee, and it was in this prolific segment that cotton took hold. Soybeans are additionally vigorously planted in West Tennessee, concentrating on the northwest corner of the state.[61]

Real organizations with home office in Tennessee incorporate Fedex, Autozone and International Paper, all situated in Memphis; Pilot Corporation and Regal Entertainment Group, situated in Knoxville; Eastman Chemical Company, situated in Kingsport; the North American central command of Nissan Motor Company, situated in Franklin; Hospital Corporation of America and Caterpillar Financial, situated in Nashville; and Unum, situated in Chattanooga. Tennessee is likewise the area of the Volkswagen plant in Chattanooga, a $2 billion polysilicon creation office by Wacker Chemie in Bradley County, and a $1.2 billion polysilicon generation office by Hemlock Semiconductor in Clarksville.

Tennessee is a right to work state, as are a large portion of its Southern neighbors. Unionization has generally been low and keeps on decliing as in the vast majority of the U.s. by and large. As of November 2011, the state had an unemployment rate of 8.4%.[62]


The Tennessee salary charge does not have any significant bearing to compensations and wages, yet most wage from stock, bonds and notes receivable is assessable. All assessable profits and investment which surpass the $1,250 single exception or the $2,500 joint exclusion are assessable at the rate of 6%. The state's deals and utilization expense rate for most things is 9.25%. Nourishment is saddled at a lower rate of 5.25%, however confection, dietary supplements and arranged sustenance are exhausted at the full 7% rate. Nearby deals duties are gathered in many locales, at rates fluctuating from 1.5% to 2.75%, bringing the aggregate deals expense to somewhere around 8.5% and 9.75%, one of the largest amounts in the country. Elusive property is evaluated on the shares of supply of stockholders of any advance organization, venture organization, insurance agency or revenue driven cemetery organizations. The evaluation degree is 40% of the worth increased by the expense rate for the locale. Tennessee forces a legacy assess on decedents' bequests that surpass most extreme single absolution cutoff points ($1,000,000 for passings in 2006 and thereafter).[63]

Broadband Infrastructure[edit]

In light of information discharged by the NITA, starting 2013 just 88.5% of customers in Tennessee had entry to 10mbps broadband associations with roughly 797,000 individuals left underserved, having admittance to just 1 wired provider.[64] However since 2012, 10+ mbps wired broadband scope in Tennessee has enhanced from 86.4% to 88.5%.[65]


Interstate highways[edit]

The Hernando de Soto Bridge spans the Mississippi River in Memphis
Interstate 40 crosses the state in a west-east orientation. Its branch interstate highways include I-240 in Memphis; I-440 in Nashville; I-140 from Knoxville to Alcoa and I-640 in Knoxville. I-26, although technically an east-west interstate, runs from the North Carolina border below Johnson City to its terminus at Kingsport. I-24 is an east-west interstate that runs cross-state from Chattanooga to Clarksville. Interstate 22 is an east-west interstate that will connect with I-240 or I-269 in Memphis to I-65 in Birmingham. In a north-south orientation are highways I-55, I-65, I-75, and I-81. Interstate 65 crosses the state through Nashville, while Interstate 75 serves Chattanooga and Knoxville and Interstate 55 serves Memphis. Interstate 81 enters the state at Bristol and terminates at its junction with I-40 near Dandridge. I-155 is a branch highway from I-55. The only spur highway of I-75 in Tennessee is I-275, which is in Knoxville.

Major airports within the state include Memphis International Airport (MEM), Nashville International Airport (BNA), McGhee Tyson Airport (TYS) in Knoxville, Chattanooga Metropolitan Airport (CHA), Tri-Cities Regional Airport (TRI), and McKellar-Sipes Regional Airport (MKL), in Jackson. Because Memphis International Airport is the major hub for FedEx Corporation, it is the world's largest air cargo operation.

For passenger rail service, Memphis and Newbern, Tennessee, are served by the Amtrak City of New Orleans line on its run between Chicago, California, and New Orleans, Louisiana. Nashville is served by the Music City Star commuter rail service.

Cargo services in Tennessee are primarily served by CSX Transportation, which has a hump yard in Nashville called Radnor Yard. Norfolk Southern Railway operates lines in East Tennessee, through cities including Knoxville and Chattanooga, and operates a classification yard near Knoxville, the John Sevier Yard.


Tennessee's senator holds office for a four-year term and may serve a most extreme of two successive terms. The senator is the main authority who is chosen statewide. Dissimilar to most states, the state does not choose the lieutenant senator straightforwardly; the Tennessee Senate chooses its Speaker, who serves as lieutenant representative.

The Tennessee General Assembly, the state governing body, comprises of the 33-part Senate and the 99-part House of Representatives. Representatives serve four-year terms, and House parts serve two-year terms. Each one chamber picks it speaker. The speaker of the state Senate additionally holds the title of lieutenant-senator. Protected authorities in the administrative extension are chosen by a joint session of the assembly.

The most astounding court in Tennessee is the state Supreme Court. It has a boss equity and four partner judges. Close to two judges might be from the same Grand Division. The Supreme Court of Tennessee additionally delegates the Attorney General, a practice that is not found in any of the other 49 states in the Union. Both the Court of Appeals and the Court of Criminal Appeals have 12 judges.[66] various nearby, circuit, and government courts give legal administrations.

Tennessee's present state constitution was received in 1870. The state had two prior constitutions. The primary was embraced in 1796, the year Tennessee joined the union, and the second was received in 1834. The 1870 Constitution outlaws military law inside its purview. This may be an aftereffect of the knowledge of Tennessee occupants and different Southerners amid the time of military control by Union (Northern) strengths of the U.s. government after the American Civil War.


See likewise: List of Tennessee Governors, U.s. Congressional Delegations from Tennessee, Tennessee's congressional regions and Political gathering quality in Tennessee

Presidential races results

Year republican democratic

2012 59.42% 1,462,330 39.04% 960,709

2008 56.85% 1,479,178 41.79% 1,087,437

2004 56.80% 1,384,375 42.53% 1,036,477

2000 51.15% 1,061,949 47.28% 981,720

1996 45.59% 863,530 48.00% 909,146

1992 42.43% 841,300 47.08% 933,521

1988 57.89% 947,233 41.55% 679,794

1984 57.84% 990,212 41.57% 711,714

1980 48.70% 787,761 48.41% 783,051

1976 42.94% 633,969 55.94% 825,879

1972 67.70% 813,147 29.75% 357,293

1968 37.85% 472,592 28.13% 351,233

1964 44.49% 508,965 55.50% 634,947

1960 52.92% 556,577 45.77% 481,453

Tennessee legislative issues, in the same way as that of generally U.s. states, are commanded by the Republican and the Democratic Parties. Aside from in two across the country Republican avalanches of the 1920s (in 1920, when Tennessee barely underpinned Warren G. Harding over Ohio Governor James Cox, and in 1928, when it all the more unequivocally voted in favor of Herbert Hoover over New York Governor Al Smith), the state was some piece of the Democratic Solid South until the 1950s, when it twice voted in favor of Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower. From that point forward, the Democrats have just conveyed Tennessee four times.

While the Republicans control somewhat more than a large portion of the state, Democrats have moderate backing in parts of country Middle Tennessee and northern West Tennessee and have solid backing in the urban communities of Nashville and Memphis. The last region incorporates a vast African-American population.[67] Historically, Republicans had their most prominent quality in East Tennessee before the 1960s. Tennessee's first and second congressional locale, situated in the Tri-Cities and Knoxville separately, are among the few generally Republican areas in the South. Those locale's occupants backed the Union over the Confederacy amid the Civil War; they related to the GOP after the war and host stayed with that get-together following the time when. The first has been in Republican hands constantly since 1881, and Republicans (or their forerunners) have held it for everything except four years since 1859. The second has been held consistently by Republicans or their predecessors since 1859.

Interestingly, long disappointment of African Americans and their extent as a minority (16.45% in 1960) implied that white Democrats for the most part overwhelmed governmental issues in whatever is left of the state until the 1960s. The GOP in Tennessee was basically a sectional gathering. Previous Gov. Winfield Dunn and previous U.s. Sen. Bill Brock wins in 1970 incorporated the Republican Party with an aggressive gathering for the statewide triumph. Tennessee hosts chose governors from diverse gatherings since 1970.

In the 2000 presidential race, Vice President Al Gore, a previous U.s. Congressperson from Tennessee, neglected to convey his home state, a curious event. Help for Republican George W. Hedge expanded in 2004, with his edge of triumph in the state expanding from 4% in 2000 to 14% in 2004.[68] Democratic presidential chosen people from Southern states, (for example, Lyndon B. Johnson, Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton) typically passage better than their Northern partners do in Tennessee, particularly among part ticket voters outside the metropolitan regions.

Tennessee sends nine parts to the US House of Representatives, of whom there are seven Republicans and two Democrats. Lieutenant Governor Ron Ramsey is the first Republican speaker of the state Senate in 140 years. In 2008 races, the Republican party picked up control of both places of the Tennessee state assembly shockingly since Reconstruction. Presently considered as 30% of the state's electorate are independents.[69]

The Baker v. Carr (1962) choice of the US Supreme Court, which created the standard of exclusive, one vote, was focused around a claim over rustic predispositioned distribution of seats in the Tennessee legislature.[70][71][72] This huge decision prompted an expanded (and relative) noticeable quality in state governmental issues by urban and, inevitably, suburban, officials and statewide officeholders in connection to their populace inside the state. The decision additionally connected to various different states since a long time ago controlled by country minorities, for example, Alabama.

Law enforcement[e


Tennessee has a rich variety of public, private, charter, & specialized schooling facilities ranging from preschool through university schooling.

Vanderbilt University

University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Tennessee State University, Nashville

Rhodes College

Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro
Colleges & universities[edit]
Main editorial: List of colleges & universities in Tennessee
Public higher schooling is under the oversight of the Tennessee Higher Schooling Commission which provides guidance to public university systems � the University of Tennessee method & the Tennessee Board of Regents. In addition numerous private colleges & universities can be found throughout the state.

American Baptist College
Aquinas College
The Art Institute of Tennessee � Nashville
Austin Peay State University
Baptist College of Health Sciences
Belmont University
Bethel College
Bryan College
Carson�Newman University
Chattanooga State Community College
Christian Brothers University
Cleveland State Community College
Columbia State Community College
Crown College
Cumberland University
Dyersburg State Community College
East Tennessee State University
Emmanuel Christian Seminary
Fisk University
Freed�Hardeman University
Jackson State Community College
Johnson University
King University
Knoxville College
Lane College
Lee University
LeMoyne�Owen College
Lincoln Memorial University
Lipscomb University
Martin Methodist College
Maryville College
Meharry Medical College
Memphis College of Art
Memphis Theological Seminary
Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary
Middle Tennessee State University
Milligan College
Motlow State Community College
Nashville School of Law
Nashville State Community College
Northeast State Community College
Nossi College of Art
O'More College of Design
Pellissippi State Community College
Rhodes College
Roane State Community College
Sewanee: The University of the South
South College School of Pharmacy
Southern Adventist University
Southern College of Optometry
Southwest Tennessee Community College
Tennessee Colleges of Applied Know-how
Tennessee State University
Tennessee Technological University
Tennessee Temple University
Tennessee Wesleyan College
Trevecca Nazarene University
Tusculum College
Union University
University of Memphis
University of Tennessee method
University of Tennessee (Knoxville)
University of Tennessee Health Science Middle (Memphis)
University of Tennessee Space Institute
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
University of Tennessee at Martin
Vanderbilt University
Volunteer State Community College
Walters State Community College
Watkins College of Art, Design & Film
Welch College
Victory University
Local school districts[edit]
Main articles: List of school districts in Tennessee & List of high schools in Tennessee
Public primary & secondary schooling systems are operated by county, city, or special school districts to provide schooling at the local level. These school districts operate under the direction of the Tennessee Department of Schooling. Private schools are present in a plenty of counties.


Proficient teams[edit]

Club sport league

Tennessee Titans football national Football League

Memphis Grizzlies basketball national Basketball Association

Nashville Predators ice hockey national Hockey League

Memphis Redbirds baseball pacific Coast League (Triple-A)

Nashville Sounds baseball pacific Coast League (Triple-A)

Chattanooga Lookouts baseball southern League (Double-A)

Tennessee Smokies baseball southern League (Double-A)

Jackson Generals baseball southern League (Double-A)

Bristol Pirates baseball appalachian League (Rookie)

Elizabethton Twins baseball appalachian League (Rookie)

Greeneville Astros baseball appalachian League (Rookie)

Johnson City Cardinals baseball appalachian League (Rookie)

Kingsport Mets baseball appalachian League (Rookie)

Knoxville Ice Bears ice hockey southern Professional Hockey League

Chattanooga Fc soccer national Premier Soccer League

Knoxville Force soccer national Premier Soccer League

Tennessee is likewise home to Bristol Motor Speedway which offers NASCAR Sprint Cup hustling two weekends a year, routinely offering out more than 160,000 seats on each one date; it additionally was the home of the Nashville Superspeedway, which held Nationwide and Indy Racing League races until it was closed down in 2012. Tennessee's just evaluated stakes stallion race, the Iroquois Steeplechase, is likewise held in Nashville every May.

State symbols

State amphibian � Tennessee cave salamander
State bird � Mockingbird
State game bird � Bobwhite quail
State butterfly � Zebra swallowtail
State sport fish � Smallmouth bass
State commercial fish � Channel catfish
State cultivated flower � Iris
State wild flowers � Passion flower & Tennessee echinacea
State insects � Firefly & lady beetle
State agricultural insect � Honeybee
State wild animal � Raccoon
State horse � Tennessee Jogging Horse
State reptile � Eastern box turtle
State tree � Tulip poplar
State evergreen tree � Eastern red cedar
State beverage � Milk
State dance � Square dance
State fruit � Tomato
State fossil � Pterotrigonia (Scabrotrigonia) thoracica
State gem � Tennessee River pearl
State mineral � Agate
State rock � Limestone
State motto � Agriculture & Commerce
State poem � "Oh Tennessee, My Tennessee" by Admiral William Lawrence
State slogan � Tennessee - The united states at its Best
State songs � 7 songs

Main editorial: List of Tennessee state symbols
State symbols, present in Tennessee Code Annotated Title four, Chapter one, Part three, include: